Аrmenian culture is one of the various manifestations of the life of the Armenian nation, which is based on self-knowledge, self-expression, accumulation of skills and abilities. During the natural formation of the ethnos, it has formed unique symbols, beliefs, convictions, values, norms, patterns of behavior that characterize the life of the Armenian people. The Armenian national culture, by its nature, is the highest form of ethnic culture development. That form is described by the existence of a unique cultural system, based on social solidarity, and the experience of Armenians’ coexistence not only on the territory of Armenia, but also in foreign countries.
During the historical development, the Armenian nation has created material, spiritual, artistic and physical culture, which satisfy the primary or secondary needs of its vital activity. The existence of a high professional level of culture brought it to the level of worldwide significance, particularly to the level of ability to support world civilization. The Armenian national culture is always connected with its direct social bearer – Armenians.
Armenian material culture is based on the type of rational, reproductive activity, it is expressed in an objective-objective form. Armenians are one of the first nations to go through agriculture. Wheat and grape cultivation and gardening have been brought to a high level. The Armenian apartment, the head house with its unique living conditions, was formed in the harsh mountain climatic conditions. Armenians were able to skillfully use the natural resources of the Armenian Highlands, to adapt them to their way of life. The technical experience of neighboring civilizations is also widely used. The Armenians created a unique national costume and cuisine.
The caring culture of the Armenian nation is based on a rational, creative type of activity, expressed in a subjective way. Along with the formation of the ethnos, its own system of beliefs, rituals and spiritual values is created. In 301, Christianity was declared the state religion in Armenia, but developed in a unique national way, which had the greatest impact on the self-recognition and self-expression of Armenians. In 405 the national script was created, which is a stimulus for the formation of national literature. Faith has its impact on almost all spheres of Armenian life. At the same time, Armenian monasteries and churches are not only religious, but also educational, scientific, social and other cultural centers.
The artistic culture of the Armenians is based on an irrational, creative type of activity, it is expressed both objectively and subjectively. The influence of Armenian Christianity is great. Certain borrowings from neighboring civilizations are also tangible.
The physical culture of Armenians is based on a rational, creative type of activity, expressed in a subjective (bodily) way. The physical fitness of Armenians in various fields has been highly valued at the international level.
Armenian Elite or high culture is created by the privileged part of the Armenian society or by its order, professional creators. As a rule, it goes beyond the level of perception of a person with secondary education. In the absence of statehood, the elite culture of the Armenians went through serious trials, almost completely trusting the Armenian psyche.
Armenian folk culture or folklore was created by anonymous creators who had no professional training. Formed together with the origin of the Armenian people, it has passed its centuries-old path of development, at the same time preserving certain local traditions.
The mass Armenian culture does not express the delicacy of the Armenian intelligentsia or the deep search of the people. This is an art for everyone: aimed at serving the tastes and needs of those who pay money. Unlike elite culture, it has a larger audience, and compared to folk culture, it is always authorial. Mass Armenian culture is designed to meet the immediate needs of the people, responds to any new event, seeks to reflect it. His designs are rapidly losing their relevance, going out of fashion. Armenian mass culture became more widespread and representative thanks to modern mass media.
DEVELOPMENT OF ARMENIAN CULTURE
- The Bronze Period (4th -2nd millennium BC )
- Urartian period (9th – 8th centuries BC )
- Period of Orontid dynasty (4th – 3rd centuries BC)
- Period of Armenian Hellenism ( 2nd century BC – 3rd century AD)
- Early Christian period or “Golden Era” (IV-V centuries)
- The Marzpanate period (V-VII centuries)
- The period of Bagratid dynasty (VIII-XI centuries)
- The period of Zakarids, “Silver Era” (XII-XIII centuries)
- Cilician period (XI-XIV centuries)
- Late Middle Ages or Era of Darkness (XIV-XVII centuries)
- Renewal (XVII-XVIII centuries)
- Armenian classicism (XVIII – the beginning of 19 centuries)
- Armenian romanticism (mid 19th century)
- Armenian realism (second half of XIX century)
- Armenian impressionism (70th-80th of XIX century)
- Armenian symbolism and neorealism (the beginning of XX century)
- Soviet period (1921-1990)
- Armenian modernism
- Armenian postmodernism
- Pop art
Translated by Edik Hovsepyan