Since 12th century, Middle Armenian has been in the equal position together with Classical Armenian. Before that time, it was in the formation process and didn’t have the unity of the linguistic forms and the structural homogeneity.
Middle Armenian is full of sources from diverse spheres, such as fiction prose and poetry, science and historical files, records, official correspondence, manuals, inscriptions etc. Moreover, Grabar or Classical Armenian along with Middle Armenian was used as a literary language, which served for creating religious, scientific, historical and clerical fiction. A number of new loanwords from different languages – Persian, Arabic, Turkish and European other languages are included in the vocabulary and new words, styles and expressions are moved from spoken language to the literary one as well.
Middle Armenian has developed in two periods- Cilician regulation (12-14th cc.) and East Armenian formation period(15-16th cc.). Cilician Armenian was considered to be the official language of the Kingdom of Cilicia during the language formation period. Anyway, it lost the position as an official language and was even deprived of some development opportunities.
At first, because of the migration, decline of the urban life, the dialectal distinction process of the language was dominating, whereas, the linguistic system standardization made the language be close to the national- spoken basis.
Middle Armenian is notable for being the first written form of Armenian to display Western-type voicing qualities and to have introduced the letters օ and ֆ, which were based on the Greek letters “ο” and “φ”