The Artsakh Republic or Nagorno Karabagh (Mountain Karabagh) Republic (NKR,) in short Artsakh, is yet internationally unrecognized Armenian second state in Western Asia. Artsakh is located in South Caucasus geopolitical region , historically it was part of Armenia Major’s north-eastern states occupying 1/20 part of our homeland.
The Nagorno –Karabagh Republic was founded in 1991 on September 2 on the territory of former Azerbaijan SSR part Nagorno-Karabagh Autonomy and neighboring Shahumyan region.
On 10 of December referendum was held with attendance of 82,2% of registered citizens , 99,89% of voters has voted for independence , based on the result of referendum Supreme Council of Nagorno-Karabagh Republic accepted the declaration of independence.
The Nagorno-Karabagh Republic borders with Republic of Armenia in west, in south with Iran, and has borders with Azerbaijan from north and east. The Republic has no access to the sea.
Area – 11,458.38 km2
Population – 141.000
Capital – Stepanakert
Historical centre – Shushi
In response of the referendum Azerbaijan started full-scaled military operation against the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic, both sides had wins and losses in this war which continued until 1994. On may 24 of 1994 in the capital of Kyrgyzstan Bishkek by the mediation of CIS parliamentary counsel Azerbaijan, Armenia and Nagorno-Karabagh signed protocol according to which sides came to agreement about cease-fire which operates to present.
In March of 1994 Counsel for security and co-operation in Europe (CSCE) joined to the normalization process of Nagorno-Karabagh conflict (since December of 1997 Organization for security and co-operation in Europe). In 1997 co-chairmanship of Minsk group (USA, Russia and France) was established.
The Nagorno-Karabagh Republic is sovereign, democratic, legal, social state. State government is exercised by constitution and laws by principle of balance between legislative, executive and judicial powers.
Constitution was adopted on 10 of December of 2006 as result of referendum.
The Nagorno-Karabagh Republic is presidential democracy; the president is elected by citizens for five-year period. Supreme legislative power is unicameral parliament, it consists of 33 members.
Executive power is exercised by government, it includes prime-minister and ministers, president appoints prime-minister after consultation with political parties, prime –minister should be approved by the majority of the parliament members, prime-minister can advise to president on appointment and dismissal of cabinet members.
Justice is administered by courts according to constitution and laws. In the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic judicial system consists of Court of First Instance, Courts of Appeal, and The Supreme Court, also specialized courts. Supreme Court guarantees dominance of constitution and equal application of law. Head of The Supreme Court and judges are appointed by The National Assembly by President’s proposal.
Like The Republic of Armenia administrative division of the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic is two-leveled. Republic is divided into 7 regions .Capital Stepanakert has special status. Regions are made up of rural and urban communities which are administered by local governments. Nagorno-Karabagh Republic has 10 towns and 322 villages, according to Constitution they are self-governing administrative units.
Administrative regions of the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic are Kashatagh, Martakert, Shahumyan, Askeran, Martuni, Hadrut , Shushi and Stepanakert city.
Shahumyan region is under military occupation of Azerbaijan, Armenian population pulled out of this territory has settled down in liberated Vaykunik.
THE FLAG AND COAT OF ARMS OF THE NAGORNO–KARABAGH
The flag of the Nagorno – Karabagh Republic is horizontal rectangular piece of red ,blue, orange strips each 20 inches wide, from the both corners of the right side of the piece starts white five-cornered stairlike ornament, this symbolizes Artsakh cut from Armenia, silhouette is like one which had map of the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic when declaration of independence in 1991.
On the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic’s Coat of Arms which was approved on 23 of November in 1994 is depicted eagle with extended sun rays and crown of Artashesides dynasty above. The crown is linked to residential town of Tigran the Great which located on the territory of Artsakh, in the center there is depicted sculpture “We and our mountains ” on the front of Artsakh national flag and mount Kris. In the eagle claws there are grapes , mulberry fruits and wheat , on the top there is inscription “The Republic of Nagorno-Karabagh – Artsakh”.
National Anthem of The Republic of Nagorno-Karabagh is the symbol of independence, national anthem was adopted by the decision of Supreme Counsel on 17 of November in 1992, author of the lyrics is Vardan Hakobyan, and author of the music is Armen Nasibyan.
The anthem of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabagh (listen)
The terrains are generally mountainous, average altitude is 1100 m above sea level.
Highest peak is Gomshasar 3724 m. The south and the east are relatively low-lying,
Artsakh plains extend along the Araks river.
The average temperature
Annual precipitation is 560-840 mm in the highland areas, low-lying areas, 410-480 mm
In highland areas it is foggy 100-125 days a year
Climate is moderate dry
The total amount of permanent residents The Nagorno-Karabagh Republic is 141,400 by 2013 January 1.
Average density is 12 people per 1sq km , capital Stepanakert is the most populated 54,100 people.
Urban population is 74,183 or 52,5%, rural population is 67,217 or 47,5%.Men make up 48,1% of the population , women 51,9%.
95% of the population is Armenian , main ethnic minorities are Russian , Greek, Ukrainian, Georgians and Azerbaijanis,
The Artsakh Republic is secular state, 95% of the Armenian population belongs to Armenian Apostolic Church.
Religious minorities include Catholics, Orthodox, Evangelical and also Muslims.
Official language of the Nagorno-Karabagh Republic is Armenian.
In centuries-old history of Armenian culture eastern part of the Armenian state has had its unique role. It has combined all identifying features of Armenian ethnicity.
Artsakh is not only inseparable part of the Armenian Highland but also has been its awake border watch.
Artsakh’s economy has suffered a lot during war of 1991-1994, since 2008 GDP growth is maintained within 9-11%.
Economy had 9% growth of GDP and 4% inflation in 2014.
Best part of GDP `60 % was produced by private sector.
Private sector is made up of 12% industry, 14% agriculture, 9% construction, 28% service from which 7% belongs to catering and trade.
Small and medium-sized enterprises contributed to 34% of GDP, 40 billion dram worth construction work is performed in the republic.
Artsakh is traditionally a horsebreeding center.
Official currency is NKR dram but actually Armenian dram (AMD) is used.
tel. +37410 249928 , consular department (+37410) 24-97-05
tel. +7 495 628-9781
USA and Canada (New York)
tel. +1 (202) 223-4330
tel. +33 1 53751740
tel. +02 9551 2882
The Middle East (Beirut)
tel. +961 124 1024
tel. + 49 1578-52-78-778
Internet TLD .am
ISO 3166 code AM
Calling code +374
Time zone UTC (UTC+4)