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The Republic of Armenia

The Republic of Armenia (RA), in short Armenia, is a country in Western Asia  and from the geopolitical side  it’s located in the region of the South Caucasus. The Republic of Armenia occupies only 1/10 part of historical Armenia.

The Republic of Armenia proclaimed on May 28, 1918. In 1920 Armenia was declared Soviet Socialist Republic. On 23 August, 1990 The Parliament declared Armenia as an independent republic, which was acclaimed on 21 September, 1991 during the referendum.

 In the North Armenia borders on Georgia, in the East Azerbaijan, in the Southeast  – Artsakh (Nagorno Karabagh),    in South it borders on Iran, in the Southwest – Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and in the West it borders on Turkey.The Republic of Armenia doesn’t have exit to sea.

 The area of the country   is 29743 square km (close to the areas of Albania and Belgium).

 The population of the country is 3.2 million people (according to the resident population), 3.0 million people (according to the current population).

 The capital of the country is Yerevan (having community status).

On 21 December, 1991 Armenia became a member of the CIS.
On 2  March , 1992 Armenia became a member of the UN.
On 25 January, 2001 Armenia became a member of the Council of Europe.
On 5 February, 2003 Armenia became a member of the World Trade Organization.
On 2 January, 2015 Armenia became a member of The Eurasian Economic Union.

POLITICAL SYSTEM

The Republic of Armenia is a   sovereign, democratic, social legal state. The State is governed  by   the Constitution and by the laws of executive, legislative and judicial powers, which are based on the balance of principles. The Constitution of Republic of Armenia was adopted on 5 July, 1995 during the national referendum. The Constitutional changes were made on 27 November, 2005 during the national referendum.

ՀՀ Նախագահի նստավայր

The head of the State is  President. The President of the State uphold the Constitution ,  provides the normal activity of the legislative, executive and judicial powers .The President is the guarantor for independence, territorial  integrity  and security of the country. The President of the country is elected by the citizens of Republic of Armenia for a five-year   term.

The National Assembly of Armenia is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia. There are 131 members. They are elected for four-year terms.

Parliament

The executive power is   exercised by the Government. It consists of   Prime Minister and other Ministers. The President of the State appoints the Prime Minister according to distribution of parliamentary seats and consultations of National Assembly, if it is impossible then the person who has the trust of the majority of the deputies become Prime Minister.

Government

 Prime Minister appoints and dismisses the members of the government. The Justice in the Republic of Armenia exercised only by courts, according the Constitution and laws. In Armenia the courts of Common   Jurisdiction consists of   First Instance, Courts of Appeal and Court of Cassation.

Administrative Court also operates; there can be other specialized courts as well.

Constitutional Justice is exercised by Constitutional Court.

Administrative divisions

The Republic of Armenia is divided into ten provinces. Provinces, in their turn, consist of urban and rural communities, which are self-governing. The chief executive in each province is marzpet, appointed by the Government of Armenia and decisions are certified by the President of Armenia.

The Republic of Armenia  includes 915 communities  of which 49 are considered urban and 866 are considered rural and 12  semi-autonomous districts in Yerevan. There are 949 village in Armenia. Yerevan has separate status of community with its 12 districts.

The regions of the Republic of Armenia are  Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Gegharkunik, Lori, Kotayk,  Shirak,  Syunik,  Vayots Dzor, Tavush.

THE FLAG AND COAT OF ARMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

[Flafdropcap color=”#dd9933″]T[/dropcap]he flag is one of the symbols of the Republic of Armenia. The Armenian Tricolor flag consists of three horizontal bands of equal width red on the top, blue in the middle, and orange on the bottom. The Red emblematizes the Armenian Highland, the Armenian people’s continued struggle for survival, maintenance of the Christian faith, Armenia’s independence and freedom. The Blue emblematizes the will of the people of Armenia to live beneath peaceful skies. The Orange emblematizes the creative talent and hard-working nature of the people of Armenia. The proportion of the flag is 1:2.

In 1992, as a state Coat of Arms, was restored the one  of the First Republic of Armenia. The authors are architect and member of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts Alexander Tamanian and artist Hakob Kojoyan.

CoatIt is the coat of arms of Armenia. In the center is a depiction of the Mount Ararat with Noah’s Ark and   symbols of old four  Armenian dynasties- in the upper left portion Bagratuni Dynasty, in the upper right portion Arsacid Dynasty, in the lower left Artaxiad Dynasty, in the lower right Rubenid Dynasty.  The eagle supports the shield on the left side and the lion on the right side, below the shield is depicted Bundle of Wheat Flowers, Feather, Broken Chain,  Ribon, and Sword. The main color of coat and arms is  golden, as well  the colors of Dynasties –in the upper left red color , in the upper right blue, in the lower left blue, in the lower right red and in the center of the shield is depicted Mount Ararat in orange color. All these colors symbolize the colors of the Flag of Armenia.

NATIONAL ANTHEM

By the decision of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Armenia on 1 July 1991, when National Anthem of Armenia was adopted,  it was also the national anthem of the First  Republic of Armenia(1918-1920). On 25 December, 2006 was adopted the law of “The National Anthem of Armenia”.

The anthem of the Republic of Armenia is “Mer Hayrenik” (“Our Fatherland”). The lyrics of the anthem are written by Mikael Nalbandyan and the music is written by composer Barsegh Kanachian.

The anthem of the Republic of Armenia (listen)

Armenia

The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

GEOGRAPHY

Maximum extent from north-west to south-east 360 km, and from west to east 200 km.

The average height above sea level is 1800 m.

76.5% of the area of the country is 1000-2500 m high above sea level.

The mountains and plateau occupy  36.4 % of the area.

The lowest point of the country is the valley of Debed River( 375 m).

Mt. Aragats is the highest point (4090 m).

Water reserves are 8.5 billion a year of which 6.54m³ is surface runoff.

The average temperature:

January -2.3 °C,

June +16.3 °C.

Annual average precipitation is  652.6 mm.

Climate is dry continental.

POPULATION

By 1st of November 2015, total population is  about 2 976 290 people.  The density of the population – 102 people per square kilometer. The most densely populated area is Yerevan (4754 people/sq km).

 Urban population is 63.3%, the majority of which (55.5%) lives  in the capital of Armenia. Gyumri and Vanadzor are major cities in Armenia.

 The average age is 35.5 years. The number of the woman is about  1 570 800, and the number of the men is 1 448 060 (52/48).

96 % of population are Armenians. The main ethnic majorities are Russians, Yezidis, Kurds, Assyrians, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Persians, Ukrainians and the others.

 Armenia is a secular state. Approximately 94% of population  are followers of Armenian Apostolic Church.

 Religious minorities include Catholics, Molokans, Russian Orthodox, Evangelicals, Baptists, Pentecost, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormons, Kurds, Jews, Sunni Muslims (mainly Kurds) and Shiite Muslims. Generally there are 66 religious communities in the Republic of Armenia.

 The official language of the country is Armenian. According to the provisions of the European Charter of the Regional or Ethnic languages, the second official language is Russian.

CULTURE

Armenia is often called “museum under the open air”.

In Armenia, the tourists can see 4000 historical monuments, which represent the different eras of the country from prehistoric to hellenistic,  and from pre-christian time to medieval centuries. For centuries,

Armenians created their masterpieces during the seldom time of peace.

There are more than 40 museums and galleries in Yerevan.

In the list of UNESCO-World Heritage Site Armenia represents:

-Sanahin and Haghpat monasteries

-Ejmiatsin Cathedral and churches (St. Hripsimeh, St. Gayane, Zvartnots)

– Monastery of Geghard and Azat River basin

The tune of Armenian duduk, Armenian khachkhars (cross-stones), “Sasna Tsrer”(“Daredevils of Sassoun”) heroic epos are included in UNESCO-World Heritage sites.

ECONOMY

Armenia is industrial, agricultural country.

Of the GDP purchasing capacity Armenia is in the 131st place in the world (2012).

The economy of Armenia ended 2014 with GDP 3.4% growth and 3% inflation.

Agriculture makes 21.1% of GDP, industry-37.7%, the services sector- 41.2%.

In Armenia 19,1% of the workforce is unemployed.

The currency is dram (AMD).

Internet TLD       .am

ISO 3166 code AM

Calling code        +374

Time zone           UTC (UTC+4)

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